Reading and Resources


Jorge L. Contreras & Meredith Jacob, eds., Patent Pledges:  Global Perspectives On Patent Law’s Private Ordering Frontier (Edward Elgar, 2017) (IPKat’s Best Patent Law Book of 2018),

Articles (in chronological order)

Diane M. Peters, General Counsel, Open Source Development Labs, Understanding Patent Pledges: an Overview of Legal Considerations. (2006)

Lydia Pallas Loren, Building a Reliable Semicommons of Creative Works: Enforcement of Creative Commons Licenses and Limited Abandonment of Copyright, 14 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 271 (2007),

Jorge L. Contreras, Patent Pledges, 47(3) Ariz. St. L.J. 543-608 (2015),

Jorge L. Contreras, A Market Reliance Theory for FRAND Commitments and Other Patent Pledges, 2015(2) Utah L. Rev. 479-558 (2015),

Marta Belcher and John Casey, Hacking the Patent System: A Guide to Alternative Patent Licensing for Innovators, Juelsgaard Intellectual Property & Innovation Clinic at Stanford Law School (January 2016), 

Jesse L. Reynolds, Jorge L. Contreras & Joshua D. Sarnoff, Solar Climate Engineering and Intellectual Property: Toward a Research Commons, 18 Minn. J. L. Sci. & Tech. 1-110 (2017),

Jorge L. Contreras, The Evolving Patent Pledge Landscape, CIGI Papers No. 166, Apr. 3, 2018, 

Jorge L. Contreras, Bronwyn H. Hall & Christian Helmers, Pledging Patents for the Public Good: Rise and Fall of the Eco-Patent Commons, 57 Houston L. Rev. 61-109 (2019), 

Jonas Fabian Ehrnsperger & Frank Tietze, Patent pledges, open IP, or patent pools? Developing taxonomies in the thicket of terminologies. PLoS ONE 14(8): e0221411 (2019),

Web sites

Creative Commons, CC0 “No Rights Reserved”,

American University Washington College of Law – Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Standards-Essential Patents and FRAND Licensing,